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Welcome to Photomuse, a Resource for Scholarship in the History of Photography.
Friday, 24 October 2014, 10:26 pm.

 

Chronology

A chronology of Photography with cross-referenced timelines of Politics and Culture is provided below. It may also be useful to refer to Photographers and Exhibitions elsewhere on this site. Please select a decade below to begin to explore this resource.
You may also search the Chronology directly by entering a date here:


Jean-Baptiste Sabatier-Blot
French (1801-1881)
Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, 1844
Daguerreotype
9.1 x 6.9 cm, 1/4 plate
George Eastman House Collection, gift of Eastman Kodak Company: ex-collection Gabriel Cromer
1830 - 1839

PHOTOGRAPHY: On January 7, 1839, Francois Arago publicly announces Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre's invention of the daguerreotype. The announcement is made at the French Academy of Science in Paris. Daguerre and his collaborator Isidore Nièpce are later awarded government pensions for their discovery. Following the announcement, 24 people from different countries step forward to claim that they had invented photography before Daguerre.

POLITICS: While in England, The Spanish-born French political leader Louis Blanc founds the newspaper Revue du Progrès. Blanc returns to France in 1870, after having fled following the Revolution of 1848.

CULTURE: Étienne Cabet, a French socialist who was part of an effort to overtake the monarchy in 1830, publishes L'Histoire populaire de la Révolution française de 1789, after his return to France from England.

Jean-Baptiste Sabatier-Blot
French (1801-1881)
Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre, 1844
Daguerreotype
9.1 x 6.9 cm, 1/4 plate
George Eastman House Collection, gift of Eastman Kodak Company: ex-collection Gabriel Cromer

Anna Atkins
English (1799-1871)
Carix (America), ca. 1850
Cyanotype
25.6 x 20.0 cm.
George Eastman House Purchase: Ford Motor Co. & Morris Foundation Funds
1840 - 1849

PHOTOGRAPHY: Anna Atkins publishes British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions. She sends the dozen or so copies, each with approximately 400 cyanotypes, to researchers and friends. Atkins is the first person to produce a scientific study of the natural world using chemical compounds.

POLITICS: The British take control of Sind; today this area makes up the southwest portion of Pakistan.

CULTURE: James Wilson founds The Economist, London's weekly financial paper. He does so in opposition to the Corn Laws, which taxed and restricted corn imports. This taxation went against Wilson's belief in the necessity for free markets with limited government interference.

Anna Atkins
English (1799-1871)
Carix (America), ca. 1850
Cyanotype
25.6 x 20.0 cm.
George Eastman House Purchase: Ford Motor Co. & Morris Foundation Funds

Charles Marville
French (1816-1879)
Hotel de Ville after fire, ca. 1870
Albumen print
50.0 x 35.3 cm.
George Eastman House Collection, gift of Eastman Kodak Company: ex-collection Gabriel Cromer
1850 - 1859

PHOTOGRAPHY: Charles Marville begins methodically documenting the old streets, architectural monuments, and parks of Paris. This project would continue for the next 20 years, leaving an extensive record of the city during the same period that Baron Haussmann makes tremendous changes to the urban layout.

POLITICS: After his successful coup d'état in 1851, Napoléon III declares that he is emperor. He remains in power until 1871, when he is deposed during the Franco-Prussian conflict.

CULTURE: The French engineer Henri Giffard pilots a successful flight in a steam-powered airship.

Charles Marville
French (1816-1879)
Hotel de Ville after fire, ca. 1870
Albumen print
50.0 x 35.3 cm.
George Eastman House Collection, gift of Eastman Kodak Company: ex-collection Gabriel Cromer

Timothy O'Sullivan
American (b. Ireland, 1840-1882)
Pyramid and Domes, Pyramid Lake, Nevada, April, 1868
Albumen print
19.8 x 27.0 cm.
George Eastman House Collection, gift of Harvard University
1860 - 1869

PHOTOGRAPHY: Timothy O'Sullivan accompanies the U. S. Government Fortieth Parallel Survey and photographs the proposed route of the Central Pacific Railway.

POLITICS: Congress passes a Reconstruction Act, thereby instituting a process that Confederate states must follow in order to be re-admitted into the United States.

CULTURE: The New York Bridge Company, which builds the Brooklyn Bridge, is chartered. John Roebling is made chief engineer of the project.

Timothy O'Sullivan
American (b. Ireland, 1840-1882)
Pyramid and Domes, Pyramid Lake, Nevada, April, 1868
Albumen print
19.8 x 27.0 cm.
George Eastman House Collection, gift of Harvard University

Eadweard Muybridge
American (b. England, 1830-1904)
Jumping; over boy's back (leap-frog), ca. 1884-1887
Collotype print
George Eastman House Collection, by exchange: ex-collection Lou Marcus
1870 - 1879

PHOTOGRAPHY: Eadweard Muybridge successfully photographs a horse while in motion, proving that there are moments when galloping horses have all four hooves suspended in air.

POLITICS: Major John Wesley Powell's Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States is one of the earliest conservation efforts.

CULTURE: Thomas Edison forms the Edison Electric Light company in New York.

Eadweard Muybridge
American (b. England, 1830-1904)
Jumping; over boy's back (leap-frog), ca. 1884-1887
Collotype print
George Eastman House Collection, by exchange: ex-collection Lou Marcus

Frederick Church
American (1864-1925)
George Eastman on Board the S.S. Gallia, February 1890
Albumen print (Kodak snapshot)
9.1 cm. (diameter)
George Eastman House Collection, gift of Margaret Weston
1880 - 1889

PHOTOGRAPHY: George Eastman revolutionizes photography by separating picture taking from the darkroom. The Eastman Company introduces the first successful roll-film camera, sold with 100 exposures. Owners of the camera returned it to the factory for processing. Hence Kodak's slogan, "You press the button, we do the rest."

POLITICS: Benjamin Harrison wins the presidential election in the United States.

CULTURE: William Burroughs, an engineer in the United States, patents an adding machine.

Frederick Church
American (1864-1925)
George Eastman on Board the S.S. Gallia, February 1890
Albumen print (Kodak snapshot)
9.1 cm. (diameter)
George Eastman House Collection, gift of Margaret Weston

Jacob Riis
American (b. Denmark, 1849-1914)
Bandits' Roost, February 12, 1888
Gelatin silver print
13 9/16 x 10 1/2 in. (34.4 x 26.6 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Alexander Alland Sr., with additional funds provided by the David Schwartz Foundation
1890 - 1899

PHOTOGRAPHY: Jacob Riis publishes How the Other Half Lives.

POLITICS: American troops kill 200 Sioux Indians at the Battle of Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

CULTURE: The World Building, commissioned by the editor Joseph Pulitzer, is completed. It is designed by the architect George B. Post and is the first building in New York to rise above the spire of the Trinity Church.

Jacob Riis
American (b. Denmark, 1849-1914)
Bandits' Roost, February 12, 1888
Gelatin silver print
13 9/16 x 10 1/2 in. (34.4 x 26.6 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Alexander Alland Sr., with additional funds provided by the David Schwartz Foundation

Lewis Hine
American (1874-1940)
Doffer girl in New England Mill, 1909
Gelatin silver print
19.2 x 24.2 cm.
George Eastman House Collection, gift of the Photo League, New York: ex-collection Lewis Wickes Hine
1900 - 1909

PHOTOGRAPHY: Lewis Hine is hired by the National Child Labor Committee to photograph children working in factories and mines. The NCLC believe that the photographs will be instrumental in the effort to pass legislation that ends child labor.

POLITICS: William Taft wins the United States presidential election.

CULTURE: The architect Cass Gilbert starts designing the Woolworth Building, a Gothic skyscraper in lower Manhattan. When completed, it stands at 792 feet and is nicknamed "The Cathedral of Commerce."

Lewis Hine
American (1874-1940)
Doffer girl in New England Mill, 1909
Gelatin silver print
19.2 x 24.2 cm.
George Eastman House Collection, gift of the Photo League, New York: ex-collection Lewis Wickes Hine

Cornelius Marion Battey
American (1873-1927)
[Emmett J. Scott], ca. 1911
Gelatin silver print
8 1/8 x 5 1/4 in. (20.6 x 13.4 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Daniel Cowin
1910 - 1919

PHOTOGRAPHY: Cornelius M. Battey, a portrait photographer with studios in Cleveland and New York, moves to Tuskegee, Alabama. At the Tuskegee Institute, a school where African Americans pursue vocational training, Battey becomes the head of the Photograph Division. While in Alabama, he photographs residents as well as prominent figures such as Frederick Douglass, Booker T. Washington, and W.E.B. Du Bois.

POLITICS: President Wilson tells Germany that unless they stop submarine attacks on unarmed ships, the United States will sever relations.

CULTURE: The architect Irving Gill designs the Dodge House in Los Angeles, in a manner that foreshadows aspects of the International Style.

Cornelius Marion Battey
American (1873-1927)
[Emmett J. Scott], ca. 1911
Gelatin silver print
8 1/8 x 5 1/4 in. (20.6 x 13.4 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Daniel Cowin

László Moholy-Nagy
American (b. Hungary, 1895-1946)
Photogram, ca. 1928
Gelatin silver print
39.4 x 30.0 cm
George Eastman House Purchase; ex-collection Sybil Moholy-Nagy
1920 - 1929

PHOTOGRAPHY: László Moholy-Nagy publishes Malerei, Photographie, Film (Painting, Photography, Film) while teaching at the Bauhaus. Even though photography was not taught at the Bauhaus, Moholy-Nagy's arrival at the school a couple of years prior to the publication of his book led to increased interest in photographic experimentation by Bauhaus students.

POLITICS: In an effort to avoid future wars, France, Germany, and Belgium sign treaties that reaffirm their shared borders.

CULTURE: In Mannheim, Germany, the first exhibition of Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) painting opens.

László Moholy-Nagy
American (b. Hungary, 1895-1946)
Photogram, ca. 1928
Gelatin silver print
39.4 x 30.0 cm
George Eastman House Purchase; ex-collection Sybil Moholy-Nagy

Ben Shahn
American (b. Lithuania, 1898-1969)
Omar, West Virginia, 1937
Gelatin silver print
6 15/16 x 6 3/4 in. (17.6 x 17.1 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Mildred Baker
1930 - 1939

PHOTOGRAPHY: The U. S. government hires photographers to document the need for and effectiveness of government aid programs during the Depression. These photographers, working for the Resettlement Administration (RA) and the Farm Security Administration (FSA), compile a vast photographic record of rural America. Roy Stryker heads the photographic division and hires a group of photographers that includes Dorothea Lange, Ben Shahn, Walker Evans, Carl Mydans, Arthur Rothstein, Russell Lee, Jack Delano, Marion Post Wolcott, John Vachon, John Collier, and Gordon Parks.

POLITICS: The United States Congress passes the Social Security Act, creating a pension system for the elderly, unemployed, and disabled.

CULTURE: Zora Neale Hurston's collection of folk tales entitled Mules and Men is published.

Ben Shahn
American (b. Lithuania, 1898-1969)
Omar, West Virginia, 1937
Gelatin silver print
6 15/16 x 6 3/4 in. (17.6 x 17.1 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Mildred Baker

Gordon Parks
American (1912-2006)
Emerging Man, Harlem, 1952
Gelatin silver print
12 x 18 in. (30.5 x 45.7 cm)
International Center of Photography Purchase, with funds from the Acquisitions Committee
1940 - 1949

PHOTOGRAPHY: Gordon Parks becomes a staff photographer for Life. While working for the magazine, Parks produces important essays on the civil rights movement. His essays also focus on other subjects as well; some of his best known photographs are published in a story about the life of Flavio da Silva, a boy living in Rio de Janeiro.

POLITICS: The United States, Britain, France, Belgium, Canada, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg enter into a defensive alliance upon forming the North American Treaty Organization.

CULTURE: Arthur Miller writes the play Death of a Salesman.

Gordon Parks
American (1912-2006)
Emerging Man, Harlem, 1952
Gelatin silver print
12 x 18 in. (30.5 x 45.7 cm)
International Center of Photography Purchase, with funds from the Acquisitions Committee

Harry Callahan
American (1912-1999)
Ragsdale Beauty Shop/Poodle Cut, Detroit, 1951
Dye-transfer print
8 7/8 x 10 3/4 in. (22.5 x 27.3 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Louis F. Fox
1950 - 1959

PHOTOGRAPHY: Harry Callahan at the Institute of Design in Chicago invites Aaron Siskind to teach for the Department of Photography.

POLITICS: The United States, in the defense of South Korea, fights against North Korea in the Korean War.

CULTURE: While a student at the University of Southern California, Pierre Konig designs his first steel and glass house; this is the aesthetic of Case Study House #22, designed by Konig in 1960.

Harry Callahan
American (1912-1999)
Ragsdale Beauty Shop/Poodle Cut, Detroit, 1951
Dye-transfer print
8 7/8 x 10 3/4 in. (22.5 x 27.3 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Louis F. Fox

Robert Smithson
American (1938-1973)
Partially Buried Woodshed, 1970
Gelatin silver print
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Jon Hendricks and Irving Petlin with funds from the ICP Acquisitions Committee
1960 - 1969

PHOTOGRAPHY: Robert Smithson's "A Tour of the Monuments of Passaic, New Jersey" is one of the many Conceptual works that uses photography as a record of ephemeral projects.

POLITICS: President Johnson ignores Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara's suggestion that the United States stop bombing North Vietnam.

CULTURE: Buckminster Fuller designs a large geodesic dome for the United States Pavilion at the Montreal Expo.

Robert Smithson
American (1938-1973)
Partially Buried Woodshed, 1970
Gelatin silver print
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Jon Hendricks and Irving Petlin with funds from the ICP Acquisitions Committee

Lucas Samaras
American (b. Greece 1936)
Photo-Transformation, 1976
SX-70 Polaroid
3 1/8 x 3 1/16 in. (7.9 x 7.8 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Anne and Joel Ehrenkranz
1970 - 1979

PHOTOGRAPHY: Lucas Samaras experiments with the dye of Polaroid prints; he calls the resulting self-portraits "Photo-Transformations."

POLITICS: All remaining American troops leave Vietnam.

CULTURE: Mary Kelly begins working on Post-Partum Document (1973 - 1979).

Lucas Samaras
American (b. Greece 1936)
Photo-Transformation, 1976
SX-70 Polaroid
3 1/8 x 3 1/16 in. (7.9 x 7.8 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Anne and Joel Ehrenkranz

Susan Meiselas
American (b. 1948)
''Mano Blanca,'' signature of the death squads left on the door of a slain peasant organizer, Arcatao, Chalatenango Province, 1980
Chromogenic print
16 x 20 in. (40.6 x 50.8 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of the photographer
1980 - 1989

PHOTOGRAPHY: El Salvador: Work of Thirty Photographers, a book put together by Susan Meiselas and Harry Mattison, is published the same year that an exhibition of this work opens at the International Center of Photography. The exhibition travels for the following two years, in an effort to raise awareness about America's involvement in the civil war.

POLITICS: Ronald Reagan makes the first of several speeches referring to the war in El Salvador, arguing the necessity of intervening in the conflict as part of the fight against communism.

CULTURE: The American writer Alice Walker publishes her novel The Color Purple, which goes on to win the Pulitzer Prize and the American Book Award.

Susan Meiselas
American (b. 1948)
"Mano Blanca," signature of the death squads left on the door of a slain peasant organizer, Arcatao, Chalatenango Province, 1980
Chromogenic print
16 x 20 in. (40.6 x 50.8 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of the photographer

Shirin Neshat
American (b. Iran, 1957)
Tooba Series, 2002
Cibachrome
24 1/2 x 19 1/2 in. (62.2 x 49.5 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Anne and Joel Ehrenkranz
1990 - 1999

PHOTOGRAPHY: Shirin Neshat begins working on a series of photographs entitled Women of Allah. Her interest in the status of women and men in Islamic culture was in part initiated by a visit she took to her native country of Iran in 1990.

POLITICS: Janet Reno becomes the first female attorney general in the United States.

CULTURE: Toni Morrison is the first African American woman to win the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Shirin Neshat
American (b. Iran, 1957)
Tooba Series, 2002
Cibachrome
24 1/2 x 19 1/2 in. (62.2 x 49.5 cm)
Collection of the International Center of Photography, gift of Anne and Joel Ehrenkranz

Mitch Epstein
American (b. 1952)
Amos Power Plant, Raymond, West Virginia, 2004
Chromogenic print
45 x 58 in. (114.3 x 147.3 cm)
International Center of Photography Purchase, with funds provided by the ICP Acquisitions Committee
2000 - 2006

PHOTOGRAPHY: Mitch Epstein's ongoing series, "American Power," documents the country's energy infrastructure and the communities that exist in close-proximity to nuclear, wind, oil, and coal sources.

POLITICS: The United States declares war against Iraq.

CULTURE: The architect Daniel Liebeskind is chosen to design the World Trade Center site.

Mitch Epstein
American (b. 1952)
Amos Power Plant, Raymond, West Virginia, 2004
Chromogenic print
45 x 58 in. (114.3 x 147.3 cm)
International Center of Photography Purchase, with funds provided by the ICP Acquisitions Committee




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